Noise filtering options for conically scanning Doppler lidar measurements with low pulse accumulation

Päschke, Eileen; Detring, Carola

Doppler lidar (DL) applications with a focus on turbulence measurements sometimes require measurement settings with a relatively small number of accumulated pulses per ray in order to achieve high sampling rates. Low pulse accumulation comes at the cost of the quality of DL radial velocity estimates and increases the probability of outliers, also referred to as “bad” estimates or noise. Careful filtering is therefore the first important step in a data processing chain that begins with radial velocity measurements as DL output variables and ends with turbulence variables as the target variable after applying an appropriate retrieval method. It is shown that commonly applied filtering techniques have weaknesses in distinguishing between “good” and “bad” estimates with the sensitivity needed for a turbulence retrieval. For that reason, new ways of noise filtering have been explored, taking into account that the DL background noise can differ from generally assumed white noise. It is shown that the introduction of a new coordinate frame for a graphical representation of DL radial velocities from conical scans offers a different perspective on the data when compared to the well-known velocity–azimuth display (VAD) and thus opens up new possibilities for data analysis and filtering. This new way of displaying DL radial velocities builds on the use of a phase-space perspective. Following the mathematical formalism used to explain a harmonic oscillator, the VAD’s sinusoidal representation of the DL radial velocities is transformed into a circular arrangement. Using this kind of representation of DL measurements, bad estimates can be identified in two different ways: either in a direct way by singular point detection in subsets of radial velocity data grouped in circular rings or indirectly by localizing circular rings with mostly good radial velocity estimates by means of the autocorrelation function. The improved performance of the new filter techniques compared to conventional approaches is demonstrated through both a direct comparison of unfiltered with filtered datasets and a comparison of retrieved turbulence variables with independent measurements.

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Päschke, Eileen / Detring, Carola: Noise filtering options for conically scanning Doppler lidar measurements with low pulse accumulation. 2024. Copernicus Publications.

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