Two distinct ship emission profiles for organic-sulfate source apportionment of PM in sulfur emission control areas

Fossum, Kirsten N.; Lin, Chunshui; O'Sullivan, Niall; Lei, Lu; Hellebust, Stig; Ceburnis, Darius; Afzal, Aqeel; Tremper, Anja; Green, David; Jain, Srishti; Byčenkienė, Steigvilė; O'Dowd, Colin; Wenger, John; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita

Source apportionment quantitatively links pollution to its source, but can be difficult to perform in areas like ports where emissions from ship and other port-related activities are intrinsically linked. Here we present the analysis of aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) data and combined organic and sulfate ion positive matrix factorization (PMF) during an intensive measurement campaign in Dublin Port. Two main types of ship emissions were identified by this technique: sulfate-rich (S-Ship) and organic-rich (O-Ship). The S-Ship emissions were attributed to heavy fuel oil use and are characterised by particles with standard V/Ni ratios from 2.7–3.9 and a large fraction of acidic sulfate aerosol. The O-Ship emissions were attributed to low-sulfur fuel types and were comprised mostly of organic aerosol (OA) with the V/Ni ratios ranging only from 0–2.3. O-Ship plumes occurred over three-times more frequently than S-Ship plumes during the measurement period. Ship plumes had PM 1 concentrations in the range 4–252 µg m -3, with extreme concentrations usually lasting for 5–35 minutes. A third minor ship emission factor (X-Ship) was resolved by PMF, but not clearly attributable to any specific fuel type. Despite their short duration, shipping emission plumes were frequent and contributed to at least 28 % of PM 1 (i.e. 14 % O-Ship, 12 % S-Ship, and 2 % X-Ship). Moreover, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) and black carbon could also originate, at least in part, from ship emissions and shipping related activities, suggesting that the shipping contribution to ambient PM is likely higher, with a maximum of 47 %.

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Fossum, Kirsten N. / Lin, Chunshui / O'Sullivan, Niall / et al: Two distinct ship emission profiles for organic-sulfate source apportionment of PM in sulfur emission control areas. 2024. Copernicus Publications.

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Rechteinhaber: Kirsten N. Fossum et al.

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