Measurement report: Atmospheric ice nuclei in the Changbai Mountains (2623 m a.s.l.) in northeastern Asia

Sun, Yue; Zhu, Yujiao; Qi, Yanbin; Chen, Lanxiadi; Mu, Jiangshan; Shan, Ye; Yang, Yu; Nie, Yanqiu; Liu, Ping; Cui, Can; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Mingxuan; Zhang, Lingli; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Xinfeng; Tang, Mingjin; Wang, Wenxing; Xue, Likun

Atmospheric ice nucleation plays an important role in modulating the global hydrological cycle and atmospheric radiation balance. To date, few comprehensive field observations of ice nuclei have been carried out at high-altitude sites, which are close to the height of mixed-phase cloud formation. In this study, we measured the concentration of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the immersion freezing mode at the summit of the Changbai Mountains (2623 m above sea level), northeast Asia, in summer 2021. The cumulative number concentration of INPs varied from 1.6 inline-formula× 10inline-formula−3 to 78.3 Linline-formula−1 over the temperature range of inline-formula−5.5 to inline-formula−29.0 °C. Proteinaceous-based biological materials accounted for the majority of INPs, with the proportion of biological INPs (bio-INPs) exceeding 67 % across the entire freezing-temperature range, with this proportion even exceeding 90 % above inline-formula−13.0 °C. At freezing temperatures ranging from inline-formula−11.0 to inline-formula−8.0 °C, bio-INPs were found to significantly correlate with wind speed (inline-formularinline-formula= 0.5–0.8, inline-formulapinline-formula< 0.05) and Cainline-formula2+ (inline-formularinline-formula= 0.6–0.9), and good but not significant correlation was found with isoprene (inline-formularinline-formula= 0.6–0.7) and its oxidation products (isoprene inline-formula× Oinline-formula3) (inline-formularinline-formula= 0.7), suggesting that biological aerosols may attach to or mix with soil dust and contribute to INPs. During the daytime, bio-INPs showed a positive correlation with the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height at freezing temperatures ranging from inline-formula−22.0 to inline-formula−19.5 °C (inline-formularinline-formula> 0.7, inline-formulapinline-formula< 0.05), with the valley breezes from southern mountainous regions also influencing the concentration of INPs. Moreover, the long-distance transport of air mass from the Japan Sea and South Korea significantly contributed to the high concentrations of bio-INPs. Our study emphasizes the important role of biological sources of INPs in the high-altitude atmosphere of northeastern Asia and the significant contribution of long-range transport to the INP concentrations in this region.



Sun, Yue / Zhu, Yujiao / Qi, Yanbin / et al: Measurement report: Atmospheric ice nuclei in the Changbai Mountains (2623 m a.s.l.) in northeastern Asia. 2024. Copernicus Publications.


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