Evaluation of the first year of Pandora NO 2 measurements over Beijing and application to satellite validation

Liu, Ouyang; Li, Zhengqiang; Lin, Yangyan; Fan, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Kaitao; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Yuanyuan; Chen, Tianzeng; Dong, Jiantao; de Leeuw, Gerrit

Nitrogen dioxide (inline-formulaNO2) is a highly photochemically reactive gas, has a lifetime of only a few hours, and at high concentrations is harmful to human beings. Therefore, it is important to monitor inline-formulaNO2 with high-precision, time-resolved instruments. To this end, a Pandora spectrometer has been installed on the roof of the laboratory building of the Aerospace Information Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the Olympic Park, Beijing, China. The concentrations of trace gases (including inline-formulaNO2, inline-formulaHCHO, inline-formulaO3) measured with Pandora are made available through the open-access Pandora database (urihttps://data.pandonia-global-network.org/Beijing-RADI/Pandora171s1/, last access: 11 July 2023). In this paper, an overview is presented of the Pandora total and tropospheric inline-formulaNO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) and surface concentrations collected during the first year of operation, i.e., from August 2021 to July 2022. The data show that inline-formulaNO2 concentrations were high in the winter and low in the summer, with a diurnal cycle where the concentrations reached a minimum during the daytime. The concentrations were significantly lower during the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, showing the effectiveness of the emission control measures during that period. The Pandora observations show that during northerly winds, clean air is transported to Beijing with low inline-formulaNO2 concentrations, whereas during southerly winds, pollution from surrounding areas is transported to Beijing and inline-formulaNO2 concentrations are high. The contribution of tropospheric inline-formulaNO2 to the total inline-formulaNO2 VCD varies significantly on daily to seasonal timescales; i.e., monthly averages vary between 50 % and 60 % in the winter and between 60 % and 70 % in the spring and autumn. A comparison of Pandora-measured surface concentrations with collocated in situ measurements using a Thermo Scientific 42i-TL analyzer shows that the Pandora data are low and that the relationship between Pandora-derived surface concentrations and in situ measurements is different for low and high inline-formulaNO2 concentrations. Explanations for these differences are offered in terms of measurement techniques and physical (transport) phenomena. The use of Pandora total and tropospheric inline-formulaNO2 VCDs for validation of collocated TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) data, resampled to 100 inline-formulaminline-formula× 100 inline-formulam, shows that although on average the TROPOMI VCDs are slightly lower, they are well within the expected error for TROPOMI of 0.5 inline-formula M19inlinescrollmathml unit normal Pmolec . 0.125emnobreak normal cm - normal 2 68pt13ptsvg-formulamathimge532880a3d870b492e9c80188769e203 amt-17-377-2024-ie00001.svg68pt13ptamt-17-377-2024-ie00001.png inline-formula+ (0.2 to 0.5) inline-formula⋅inline-formulaVCDtrop (1 inline-formula M23inlinescrollmathml unit normal Pmolec . 0.125emnobreak normal cm - normal 2 68pt13ptsvg-formulamathimg492c8285d4eeb98ce3c5976975a50969 amt-17-377-2024-ie00002.svg68pt13ptamt-17-377-2024-ie00002.png inline-formula= 1 inline-formula× 10inline-formula15inline-formulamolec cm−2). The location of the Pandora instrument within a sub-orbital TROPOMI pixel of 3.5 inline-formulakminline-formula× 5.5 inline-formulakm may result in an error in the TROPOMI-derived tropospheric inline-formulaNO2 VCD between 0.223 and 0.282 inline-formula M32inlinescrollmathml unit normal Pmolec . 0.125emnobreak normal cm - normal 2 68pt13ptsvg-formulamathimgfbcdaed68c18301e1b77838ec2ddfa47 amt-17-377-2024-ie00003.svg68pt13ptamt-17-377-2024-ie00003.png , i.e., between 1.7 % and 2 %.page378 In addition, the data also show that the Pandora observations at the Beijing-RADI site are representative of an area with a radius of 10 inline-formulakm.

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Liu, Ouyang / Li, Zhengqiang / Lin, Yangyan / et al: Evaluation of the first year of Pandora NO2 measurements over Beijing and application to satellite validation. 2024. Copernicus Publications.

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