Insight into the dynamics of a long-runout mass movement using single-grain feldspar luminescence in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

de Boer, Anna-Maartje; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Mey, Jürgen; Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Reimann, Tony

Mass movements play an important role in landscape evolution of high mountain areas such as the Himalayas. Yet, establishing numerical age control and reconstructing transport dynamics of past events is challenging. To fill this research gap, we bring luminescence dating to the test in an extremely challenging environment: the Pokhara Valley in Nepal. This is challenging for two reasons: (i) the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) sensitivity of quartz, typically the mineral of choice for dating sediments younger than 100 ka, is poor, and (ii) highly rapid and turbid conditions during mass movement transport hamper sufficient OSL signal resetting prior to deposition, which eventually results in age overestimation. Here, we first assess the applicability of single-grain feldspar dating of medieval mass movement deposits catastrophically emplaced in the Pokhara Valley. Second, we exploit the poor bleaching mechanisms to get insight into the sediment dynamics of this paleo-mass movement through bleaching proxies. The Pokhara Valley is a unique setting for our case study, considering the availability of an extensive independent radiocarbon dataset as a geochronological benchmark.

Single-grain infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals were measured at 50 inline-formulaC (IRSL-50) and post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence signals at 150 inline-formulaC (pIRIR-150). Our results show that the IRSL-50 signal is better bleached than the pIRIR-150 signal. A bootstrapped minimum age model (bMAM) is applied to retrieve the youngest subpopulation to estimate the paleodose. However, burial ages calculated with this paleodose overestimate the radiocarbon ages by an average factor of inline-formula∼23 (IRSL-50) and inline-formula∼72 (pIRIR-150), showing that dating of the Pokhara Formation with a single-grain approach was not successful for most samples. Some samples, however, only slightly overestimate the true emplacement age and thus could be used for a rough age estimation. Large inheritances in combination with the scatter in the single-grain dose distributions show that the sediments have been transported under extremely limited light exposure prior to deposition, which is consistent with the highly turbid nature of the sediment-laden flood and debris flows depositing the Pokhara gravels.

To investigate the sediment transport dynamics in more detail, we studied three bleaching proxies: the percentage of grains in saturation inline-formula2D0 criteria, the percentage of best-bleached grains (inline-formula2σ range of bMAM-inline-formulaDe) and the overdispersion (OD). None of the three bleaching proxies indicate a spatial relationship with runout distance of the mass movement deposits. We interpret this as evidence for the lack of bleaching during transport, which reflects the catastrophic nature of the event. While not providing reliable burial ages of the Pokhara mass movement deposits, single-grain feldspar dating can potentially be used as an age range finder method. Our approach shows the potential of luminescence techniques to provide insights in sedimentpage54 transport dynamics of extreme and rare mass movement events in mountainous regions.

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de Boer, Anna-Maartje / Schwanghart, Wolfgang / Mey, Jürgen / et al: Insight into the dynamics of a long-runout mass movement using single-grain feldspar luminescence in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. 2024. Copernicus Publications.

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