Micro-spectroscopic and freezing characterization of ice-nucleating particles collected in the marine boundary layer in the eastern North Atlantic

Knopf, Daniel A.; Charnawskas, Joseph C.; Wang, Peiwen; Wong, Benny; Tomlin, Jay M.; Jankowski, Kevin A.; Fraund, Matthew; Veghte, Daniel P.; China, Swarup; Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Aller, Josephine Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wang, Jian

Formation of atmospheric ice plays a crucial role in the microphysical evolution of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds and thus climate. How aerosol particles impact ice crystal formation by acting as ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is a subject of intense research activities. To improve understanding of atmospheric INPs, we examined daytime and nighttime particles collected during the Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) field campaign conducted in summer 2017. Collected particles, representative of a remote marine environment, were investigated for their propensity to serve as INPs in the immersion freezing (IMF) and deposition ice nucleation (DIN) modes. The particle population was characterized by chemical imaging techniques such as computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Four major particle-type classes were identified where internally mixed inorganic–organic particles make up the majority of the analyzed particles. Following ice nucleation experiments, individual INPs were identified and characterized by SEM/EDX. The identified INP types belong to the major particle-type classes consisting of fresh sea salt with organics or processed sea salt containing dust and sulfur with organics. Ice nucleation experiments show IMF events at temperatures as low as 231 inline-formulaK, including the subsaturated regime. DIN events were observed at lower temperatures of 210 to 231 inline-formulaK. IMF and DIN observations were analyzed with regard to activated INP fraction, ice-nucleation active site (INAS) densities, and a water activity-based immersion freezing model (ABIFM) yielding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients. Observed IMF and DIN events of ice formation and corresponding derived freezing rates demonstrate that the marine boundary layer aerosol particles can serve as INPs under typical mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions. The derived IMF and DIN parameterizations allow for implementation in cloud and climate models to evaluate predictive effects of atmospheric ice crystal formation.

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Knopf, Daniel A. / Charnawskas, Joseph C. / Wang, Peiwen / et al: Micro-spectroscopic and freezing characterization of ice-nucleating particles collected in the marine boundary layer in the eastern North Atlantic. 2022. Copernicus Publications.

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