Identifying the spatiotemporal variations in ozone formation regimes across China from 2005 to 2019 based on polynomial simulation and causality analysis

Li, Ruiyuan; Xu, Miaoqing; Li, Manchun; Chen, Ziyue; Zhao, Na; Gao, Bingbo; Yao, Qi

Ozone formation regimes are closely related to the ratio of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to inline-formulaNOx. Different ranges of inline-formula M2inlinescrollmathml chem normal HCHO / chem normal NO normal 2 61pt14ptsvg-formulamathimg84f3ea347e002426ab527b92ce89cab6 acp-21-15631-2021-ie00001.svg61pt14ptacp-21-15631-2021-ie00001.png indicate three formation regimes, including VOC-limited, transitional, and inline-formulaNOx-limited regimes. Due to the unstable interactions between a diversity of precursors, the range of the transitional regime, which plays a key role in identifying ozone formation regimes, remains unclear. To overcome the uncertainties from single models and the lack of reference data, we employed two models, polynomial simulation and convergent cross-mapping (CCM), to identify the ranges of inline-formula M4inlinescrollmathml chem normal HCHO / chem normal NO normal 2 61pt14ptsvg-formulamathimg1bc23b778ab67696dff0619976c64b17 acp-21-15631-2021-ie00002.svg61pt14ptacp-21-15631-2021-ie00002.png across China based on ground observations and remote sensing datasets. The ranges of the transitional regime estimated by polynomial simulation and CCM were [1.0, 1.9] and [1.0, 1.8]. Since 2013, the ozone formation regime has changed to the transitional and inline-formulaNOx-limited regime all over China, indicating that ozone concentrations across China were mainly controlled by inline-formulaNOx. However, despite the inline-formulaNO2 concentrations, inline-formulaHCHO concentrations continuously exert a positive influence on ozone concentrations under transitional and inline-formulaNOx-limited regimes. Under the circumstance of national inline-formulaNOx reduction policies, the increase in VOCs became the major driver for the soaring ozone pollution across China. For an effective management of ozone pollution across China, the emission reduction in VOCs and inline-formulaNOx should be equally considered.

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Li, Ruiyuan / Xu, Miaoqing / Li, Manchun / et al: Identifying the spatiotemporal variations in ozone formation regimes across China from 2005 to 2019 based on polynomial simulation and causality analysis. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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