Differential absorption lidar for water vapor isotopologues in the 1.98 µm spectral region: sensitivity analysis with respect to regional atmospheric variability

Hamperl, Jonas; Capitaine, Clément; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Raybaut, Myriam; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Grouiez, Bruno; Régalia, Laurence; Santagata, Rosa; Evesque, Corinne; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Godard, Antoine; Seidl, Andrew; Sodemann, Harald; Flamant, Cyrille

Laser active remote sensing of tropospheric water vapor is a promising technology to complement passive observational means in order to enhance our understanding of processes governing the global hydrological cycle. In such a context, we investigate the potential of monitoring both water vapor inline-formula M2inlinescrollmathml chem normal H normal 2 normal 16 normal O 33pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg792edbaf775fce24c741ae1223d7cdfd amt-14-6675-2021-ie00001.svg33pt16ptamt-14-6675-2021-ie00001.png and its isotopologue inline-formulaHD16O using a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) allowing for ground-based remote measurements at high spatio-temporal resolution (150 m and 10 min) in the lower troposphere. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis and an error budget for a DIAL system under development which will operate in the 2 inline-formulaµm spectral region. Using a performance simulator, the sensitivity of the DIAL-retrieved mixing ratios to instrument-specific and environmental parameters is investigated. This numerical study uses different atmospheric conditions ranging from tropical to polar latitudes with realistic aerosol loads. Our simulations show that the measurement of the main isotopologue inline-formula M5inlinescrollmathml chem normal H normal 2 normal 16 normal O 33pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgc9e6442976126cec46da8152c3b1b6ae amt-14-6675-2021-ie00002.svg33pt16ptamt-14-6675-2021-ie00002.png is possible over the first 1.5 km of atmosphere with a relative precision in the water vapor mixing ratio of inline-formula<1 % in a mid-latitude or tropical environment. For the measurement of inline-formulaHD16O mixing ratios under the same conditions, relative precision is found to be slightly lower but still sufficient for the retrieval of range-resolved isotopic ratios with precisions in inline-formulaδD of a few per mil. We also show that expected precisions vary by an order of magnitude between tropical and polar conditions, the latter giving rise to poorer sensitivity due to low water vapor content and low aerosol load. Such values have been obtained for a commercial InGaAs PIN photodiode, as well as for temporal and line-of-sight resolutions of 10 min and 150 m, respectively. Additionally, using vertical isotopologue profiles derived from a previous field campaign, precision estimates for the inline-formulaHD16O isotopic abundance are provided for that specific case.

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Hamperl, Jonas / Capitaine, Clément / Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste / et al: Differential absorption lidar for water vapor isotopologues in the 1.98 µm spectral region: sensitivity analysis with respect to regional atmospheric variability. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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