On the modeling of amplitude-sensitive electron spin resonance (ESR) detection using voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based ESR-on-a-chip detectors

Chu, Anh; Schlecker, Benedikt; Kern, Michal; Goodsell, Justin L.; Angerhofer, Alexander; Lips, Klaus; Anders, Jens

In this paper, we present an in-depth analysis of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based sensing method for electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which greatly simplifies the experimental setup compared to conventional detection schemes. In contrast to our previous oscillator-based ESR detectors, where the ESR signal was encoded in the oscillation frequency, in the amplitude-sensitive method, the ESR signal is sensed as a change of the oscillation amplitude of the VCO. Therefore, using VCO architecture with a built-in amplitude demodulation scheme, the experimental setup reduces to a single permanent magnet in combination with a few inexpensive electronic components. We present a theoretical analysis of the achievable limit of detection, which uses perturbation-theory-based VCO modeling for the signal and applies a stochastic averaging approach to obtain a closed-form expression for the noise floor. Additionally, the paper also introduces a numerical model suitable for simulating oscillator-based ESR experiments in a conventional circuit simulator environment. This model can be used to optimize sensor performance early on in the design phase. Finally, all presented models are verified against measured results from a prototype VCO operating at 14 inline-formulaGHz inside a 0.5 inline-formulaT magnetic field.

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Chu, Anh / Schlecker, Benedikt / Kern, Michal / et al: On the modeling of amplitude-sensitive electron spin resonance (ESR) detection using voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based ESR-on-a-chip detectors. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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