Characterization of aerosol number size distributions and their effect on cloud properties at Syowa Station, Antarctica

Hara, Keiichiro; Nishita-Hara, Chiharu; Osada, Kazuo; Yabuki, Masanori; Yamanouchi, Takashi

We took aerosol measurements at Syowa Station, Antarctica, to characterize the aerosol number–size distribution and other aerosol physicochemical properties in 2004–2006. Four modal structures (i.e., mono-, bi-, tri-, and quad-modal) were identified in aerosol size distributions during measurements. Particularly, tri-modal and quad-modal structures were associated closely with new particle formation (NPF). To elucidate where NPF proceeds in the Antarctic, we compared the aerosol size distributions and modal structures to air mass origins computed using backward trajectory analysis. Results of this comparison imply that aerosol size distributions involved with fresh NPF (quad-modal distributions) were observed in coastal and continental free troposphere (FT; 12 % of days) areas and marine and coastal boundary layers (1 %) during September–October and March and in coastal and continental FT (3 %) areas and marine and coastal boundary layers (8 %) during December–February. Photochemical gaseous products, coupled with ultraviolet (UV) radiation, play an important role in NPF, even in the Antarctic troposphere. With the existence of the ozone hole in the Antarctic stratosphere, more UV radiation can enhance atmospheric chemistry, even near the surface in the Antarctic. However, linkage among tropospheric aerosols in the Antarctic, ozone hole, and UV enhancement is unknown. Results demonstrated that NPF started in the Antarctic FT already at the end of August–early September by UV enhancement resulting from the ozone hole. Then, aerosol particles supplied from NPF during periods when the ozone hole appeared to grow gradually by vapor condensation, suggesting modification of aerosol properties such as number concentrations and size distributions in the Antarctic troposphere during summer. Here, we assess the hypothesis that UV enhancement in the upper troposphere by the Antarctic ozone hole modifies the aerosol population, aerosol size distribution, cloud condensation nuclei capabilities, and cloud properties in Antarctic regions during summer.

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Hara, Keiichiro / Nishita-Hara, Chiharu / Osada, Kazuo / et al: Characterization of aerosol number size distributions and their effect on cloud properties at Syowa Station, Antarctica. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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