# GLC_FCS30: global land-cover product with fine classification system at 30 m using time-series Landsat imagery

Over past decades, a lot of global land-cover products have been released; however, these still lack a global land-cover map with a fine classification system and spatial resolution simultaneously. In this study, a novel global 30 m land-cover classification with a fine classification system for the year 2015 (GLC_FCS30-2015) was produced by combining time series of Landsat imagery and high-quality training data from the GSPECLib (Global Spatial Temporal Spectra Library) on the Google Earth Engine computing platform. First, the global training data from the GSPECLib were developed by applying a series of rigorous filters to the CCI_LC (Climate Change Initiative Global Land Cover) land-cover and MCD43A4 NBAR products (MODIS Nadir Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function-Adjusted Reflectance). Secondly, a local adaptive random forest model was built for each inline-formula $M1inlinescrollmathmlnormal 5{}^{\circ }×normal 5{}^{\circ }$ 34pt11ptsvg-formulamathimg4650d9d0398300a0901bbede1e68549f essd-13-2753-2021-ie00001.svg34pt11ptessd-13-2753-2021-ie00001.png geographical tile by using the multi-temporal Landsat spectral and texture features and the corresponding training data, and the GLC_FCS30-2015 land-cover product containing 30 land-cover types was generated for each tile. Lastly, the GLC_FCS30-2015 was validated using three different validation systems (containing different land-cover details) using 44 043 validation samples. The validation results indicated that the GLC_FCS30-2015 achieved an overall accuracy of 82.5 % and a kappa coefficient of 0.784 for the level-0 validation system (9 basic land-cover types), an overall accuracy of 71.4 % and kappa coefficient of 0.686 for the UN-LCCS (United Nations Land Cover Classification System) level-1 system (16 LCCS land-cover types), and an overall accuracy of 68.7 % and kappa coefficient of 0.662 for the UN-LCCS level-2 system (24 fine land-cover types). The comparisons against other land-cover products (CCI_LC, MCD12Q1, FROM_GLC, and GlobeLand30) indicated that GLC_FCS30-2015 provides more spatial details than CCI_LC-2015 and MCD12Q1-2015 and a greater diversity of land-cover types than FROM_GLC-2015 and GlobeLand30-2010. They also showed that GLC_FCS30-2015 achieved the best overall accuracy of 82.5 % against FROM_GLC-2015 of 59.1 % and GlobeLand30-2010 of 75.9 %. Therefore, it is concluded that the GLC_FCS30-2015 product is the first global land-cover dataset that provides a fine classification system (containing 16 global LCCS land-cover types as well as 14 detailed and regional land-cover types) with high classification accuracy at 30 m. The GLC_FCS30-2015 global land-cover products produced in this paper are free access at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3986872https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3986872 (Liu et al., 2020).

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Zhang, Xiao / Liu, Liangyun / Chen, Xidong / et al: GLC_FCS30: global land-cover product with fine classification system at 30 m using time-series Landsat imagery. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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