Analysis of atmospheric ammonia over South and East Asia based on the MOZART-4 model and its comparison with satellite and surface observations

Pawar, Pooja V.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Móring, Andrea; Sutton, Mark A.; Kulkarni, Santosh; Lal, Deen Mani; Surendran, Divya; Van Damme, Martin; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre-François; Liu, Xuejun; Govardhan, Gaurav; Xu, Wen; Jiang, Jize; Adhya, Tapan Kumar

Limited availability of atmospheric ammonia (NHinline-formula3) observations limits our understanding of controls on its spatial and temporal variability and its interactions with the ecosystem. Here we used the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers version 4 (MOZART-4) global chemistry transport model and the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution version 2 (HTAP-v2) emission inventory to simulate global NHinline-formula3 distribution for the year 2010. We presented a first comparison of the model with monthly averaged satellite distributions and limited ground-based observations available across South Asia. The MOZART-4 simulations over South Asia and East Asia were evaluated with the NHinline-formula3 retrievals obtained from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite and 69 ground-based monitoring stations for air quality across South Asia and 32 ground-based monitoring stations from the Nationwide Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring Network (NNDMN) of China. We identified the northern region of India (Indo-Gangetic Plain, IGP) as a hotspot for NHinline-formula3 in Asia, both using the model and satellite observations. In general, a close agreement was found between yearly averaged NHinline-formula3 total columns simulated by the model and IASI satellite measurements over the IGP, South Asia (inline-formular=0.81), and the North China Plain (NCP), East Asia (inline-formular=0.90). However, the MOZART-4-simulated NHinline-formula3 column was substantially higher over South Asia than East Asia, as compared with the IASI retrievals, which show smaller differences. Model-simulated surface NHinline-formula3 concentrations indicated smaller concentrations in all seasons than surface NHinline-formula3 measured by the ground-based observations over South and East Asia, although uncertainties remain in the available surface NHinline-formula3 measurements. Overall, the comparison of East Asia and South Asia using both MOZART-4 model and satellite observations showed smaller NHinline-formula3 columns in East Asia compared with South Asia for comparable emissions, indicating rapid dissipation of NHinline-formula3 due to secondary aerosol formation, which can be explained by larger emissions of acidic precursor gases in East Asia.

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Pawar, Pooja V. / Ghude, Sachin D. / Jena, Chinmay / et al: Analysis of atmospheric ammonia over South and East Asia based on the MOZART-4 model and its comparison with satellite and surface observations. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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