Assessing the simulated soil hydrothermal regime of the active layer from the Noah-MP land surface model (v1.1) in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

Li, Xiangfei; Wu, Tonghua; Wu, Xiaodong; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Hu, Guojie; Li, Ren; Qiao, Yongping; Yang, Cheng; Hao, Junming; Ni, Jie; Ma, Wensi

Extensive and rigorous model intercomparison is of great importance before model application due to the uncertainties in current land surface models (LSMs). Without considering the uncertainties in forcing data and model parameters, this study designed an ensemble of 55 296 experiments to evaluate the Noah LSM with multi-parameterization (Noah-MP) for snow cover events (SCEs), soil temperature (ST) and soil liquid water (SLW) simulation, and investigated the sensitivity of parameterization schemes at a typical permafrost site on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP). The results showed that Noah-MP systematically overestimates snow cover, which could be greatly resolved when adopting the sublimation from wind and a semi-implicit snow/soil temperature time scheme. As a result of the overestimated snow, Noah-MP generally underestimates ST, which is mostly influenced by the snow process. A systematic cold bias and large uncertainties in soil temperature remain after eliminating the effects of snow, particularly in the deep layers and during the cold season. The combination of roughness length for heat and under-canopy (below-canopy) aerodynamic resistance contributes to resolving the cold bias in soil temperature. In addition, Noah-MP generally underestimates top SLW. The runoff and groundwater (RUN) process dominates the SLW simulation in comparison to the very limited impacts of all other physical processes. The analysis of the model structural uncertainties and characteristics of each scheme would be constructive to a better understanding of the land surface processes in the permafrost regions of the QTP as well as to further model improvements towards soil hydrothermal regime modeling using LSMs.

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Li, Xiangfei / Wu, Tonghua / Wu, Xiaodong / et al: Assessing the simulated soil hydrothermal regime of the active layer from the Noah-MP land surface model (v1.1) in the permafrost regions of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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