Statistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution over the Western Ghats of India: wet versus dry spells of the Indian summer monsoon

Murali Krishna, Uriya Veerendra; Das, Subrata Kumar; Sulochana, Ezhilarasi Govindaraj; Bhowmik, Utsav; Deshpande, Sachin Madhukar; Pandithurai, Govindan

The nature of raindrop size distribution (DSD) is analyzed for wet and dry spells of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) in the Western Ghats (WG) region using Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer (JWD) measurements during the ISM period (June–September) in 2012–2015. The observed DSDs are fitted with a gamma distribution. Observations show a higher number of smaller drops in dry spells and more midsize and large drops in wet spells. The DSD spectra show distinct diurnal variation during wet and dry spells. The dry spells exhibit a strong diurnal cycle with two peaks, while the diurnal cycle is not very prominent in the wet spells. Results reveal the microphysical characteristics of warm rain during both wet and dry periods. However, the underlying dynamical parameters, such as moisture availability and vertical wind, cause the differences in DSD characteristics. The higher moisture and strong vertical winds can provide sufficient time for the raindrops to grow bigger in wet spells, whereas higher temperature may lead to evaporation and drop breakup processes in dry spells. In addition, the differences in DSD spectra with different rain rates are also observed. The DSD spectra are further analyzed by separating them into stratiform and convective rain types. Finally, an empirical relationship between the slope parameter inline-formulaλ and the shape parameter inline-formulaμ is derived by fitting the quadratic polynomial during wet and dry spells as well as for stratiform and convective types of rain. The inline-formulaμinline-formulaλ relations obtained in this work are slightly different compared to previous studies. These differences could be related to different rain microphysics such as collision–coalescence and breakup.

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Murali Krishna, Uriya Veerendra / Das, Subrata Kumar / Sulochana, Ezhilarasi Govindaraj / et al: Statistical characteristics of raindrop size distribution over the Western Ghats of India: wet versus dry spells of the Indian summer monsoon. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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Rechteinhaber: Uriya Veerendra Murali Krishna et al.

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