# Ceramic multilayer technology as a platform for miniaturized sensor arrays for water analysis

Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have been proven particularly useful in water analysis. They are usually used as single-rod measuring chains in different designs, which are manufactured using precision mechanical manufacturing and assembling technologies. The paper describes a microsystem technology approach for the fabrication of miniaturized electrochemical sensors. The ceramic HTCC (high-temperature co-fired ceramic) and LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic) multilayer technology enables suitable processes for the manufacturing of robust and miniaturized sensor arrays with a high functional density. Design, manufacture, and electrochemical performance of the novel ceramic multilayer-based sensor array are presented in the paper using various examples. An adapted material and process development was carried out for the sensitive functional films. Special thick-film pastes for the detection of the pH value as well as inline-formula $M1inlinescrollmathmlchem{\mathrm{normal NH}}_{normal 4}^{+}$ 24pt15ptsvg-formulamathimg8aeb386a576ed6c8280ae774099f80e4 jsss-10-83-2021-ie00001.svg24pt15ptjsss-10-83-2021-ie00001.png , inline-formulaK+, inline-formulaCa2+, and inline-formulaCu2+ ion concentrations in aqueous solutions were developed. Ion-sensitive thick-film membranes were deposited on a ceramic multilayer sensor platform by means of screen-printing. All ISEs, integrated in the sensor array, showed suitable electrochemical performances including a very quick response (several seconds) combined with a high sensitivity (exhibiting Nernstian behaviour) in the tested measuring range. The obtained sensitivities were around 57 inline-formulamVper decade: for the pH sensor, 30 inline-formulamVper decade for calcium, 53 inline-formulamVper decade for potassium, and 57 inline-formulamVper decade for ammonium. Depending on the application, different sensitive electrodes on the ceramic sensor array can be combined as required.

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Feller, Claudia / Partsch, Uwe: Ceramic multilayer technology as a platform for miniaturized sensor arrays for water analysis. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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