Relative sky radiance from multi-exposure all-sky camera images

Antuña-Sánchez, Juan C.; Román, Roberto; Cachorro, Victoria E.; Toledano, Carlos; López, César; González, Ramiro; Mateos, David; Calle, Abel; de Frutos, Ángel M.

All-sky cameras are frequently used to detect cloud cover; however, this work explores the use of these instruments for the more complex purpose of extracting relative sky radiances. An all-sky camera (SONA202-NF model) with three colour filters narrower than usual for this kind of cameras is configured to capture raw images at seven exposure times. A detailed camera characterization of the black level, readout noise, hot pixels and linear response is carried out. A methodology is proposed to obtain a linear high dynamic range (HDR) image and its uncertainty, which represents the relative sky radiance (in arbitrary units) maps at three effective wavelengths. The relative sky radiances are extracted from these maps and normalized by dividing every radiance of one channel by the sum of all radiances at this channel. Then, the normalized radiances are compared with the sky radiance measured at different sky points by a sun and sky photometer belonging to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The camera radiances correlate with photometer ones except for scattering angles below 10inline-formula, which is probably due to some light reflections on the fisheye lens and camera dome. Camera and photometer wavelengths are not coincident; hence, camera radiances are also compared with sky radiances simulated by a radiative transfer model at the same camera effective wavelengths. This comparison reveals an uncertainty on the normalized camera radiances of about 3.3 %, 4.3 % and 5.3 % for 467, 536 and 605 inline-formulanm, respectively, if specific quality criteria are applied.



Antuña-Sánchez, Juan C. / Román, Roberto / Cachorro, Victoria E. / et al: Relative sky radiance from multi-exposure all-sky camera images. 2021. Copernicus Publications.


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