Comparative study on immersion freezing utilizing single-droplet levitation methods

Szakáll, Miklós; Debertshäuser, Michael; Lackner, Christian Philipp; Mayer, Amelie; Eppers, Oliver; Diehl, Karoline; Theis, Alexander; Mitra, Subir Kumar; Borrmann, Stephan

Immersion freezing experiments were performed utilizing two distinct single-droplet levitation methods. In the Mainz vertical wind tunnel, supercooled droplets of 700 inline-formulaµm diameter were freely floated in a vertical airstream at constant temperatures ranging from inline-formula−5 to inline-formula−30inline-formulaC, where heterogeneous freezing takes place. These investigations under isothermal conditions allow the application of the stochastic approach to analyze and interpret the results in terms of the freezing or nucleation rate. In the Mainz acoustic levitator, 2 mm diameter drops were levitated while their temperature was continuously cooling from inline-formula+20 to inline-formula−28inline-formulaC by adapting to the ambient temperature. Therefore, in this case the singular approach was used for analysis. From the experiments, the densities of ice nucleation active sites were obtained as a function of temperature. The direct comparison of the results from two different instruments indicates a shift in the mean freezing temperatures of the investigated drops towards lower values that was material-dependent. As ice-nucleating particles, seven materials were investigated; two representatives of biological species (fibrous and microcrystalline cellulose), four mineral dusts (feldspar, illite NX, montmorillonite, and kaolinite), and natural Sahara dust. Based on detailed analysis of our results we determined a material-dependent parameter for calculating the freezing-temperature shift due to a change in cooling rate for each investigated particle type. The analysis allowed further classification of the investigated materials to be described by a single- or a multiple-component approach. From our experiences during the present synergetic studies, we listed a number of suggestions for future experiments regarding cooling rates, determination of the drop temperature, purity of the water used to produce the drops, and characterization of the ice-nucleating material. The observed freezing-temperature shift is significantly important for the intercomparison of ice nucleation instruments with different cooling rates.



Szakáll, Miklós / Debertshäuser, Michael / Lackner, Christian Philipp / et al: Comparative study on immersion freezing utilizing single-droplet levitation methods. 2021. Copernicus Publications.


12 Monate:

Grafik öffnen


Rechteinhaber: Miklós Szakáll et al.

Nutzung und Vervielfältigung: