Barbaro, Elena; Koziol, Krystyna; Björkman, Mats P.; Vega, Carmen P.; Zdanowicz, Christian; Martma, Tonu; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Kępski, Daniel; Larose, Catherine; Luks, Bartłomiej; Tolle, Florian; Schuler, Thomas V.; Uszczyk, Aleksander; Spolaor, Andrea

The Svalbard archipelago, located at the Arctic sea-ice edge between 74 and 81inline-formula N, is inline-formula∼60 % covered by glaciers. The region experiences rapid variations in atmospheric flow during the snow season (from late September to May) and can be affected by air advected from both lower and higher latitudes, which likely impact the chemical composition of snowfall. While long-term changes in Svalbard snow chemistry have been documented in ice cores drilled from two high-elevation glaciers, the spatial variability of the snowpack composition across Svalbard is comparatively poorly understood. Here, we report the results of the most comprehensive seasonal snow chemistry survey to date, carried out in April 2016 across 22 sites on seven glaciers across the archipelago. At each glacier, three snowpits were sampled along the altitudinal profiles and the collected samples were analysed for major ions (inline-formulaCa2+, inline-formulaK+, inline-formulaNa+, inline-formulaMg2+, inline-formula M7inlinescrollmathml chem normal NH normal 4 + 24pt15ptsvg-formulamathimg3226c502fdca30fe88bf9305df4b3716 acp-21-3163-2021-ie00001.svg24pt15ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00001.png , inline-formula M8inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg40da026c69d6bb7b362f8aefb7758b92 acp-21-3163-2021-ie00002.svg29pt17ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00002.png , inline-formulaBr, inline-formulaCl, and inline-formula M11inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgeb51cd45ba2a21283d090226a04e61ba acp-21-3163-2021-ie00003.svg25pt16ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00003.png ) and stable water isotopes (inline-formulaδ18O, inline-formulaδ2H). The main aims were to investigate the natural and anthropogenic processes influencing the snowpack and to better understand the influence of atmospheric aerosol transport and deposition patterns on the snow chemical composition. The snow deposited in the southern region of Svalbard is characterized by the highest total ionic loads, mainly attributed to sea-salt particles. Both inline-formula M14inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimgc5e3e0772eea57309f236de17ca43cb8 acp-21-3163-2021-ie00004.svg25pt16ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00004.png and inline-formula M15inlinescrollmathml chem normal NH normal 4 + 24pt15ptsvg-formulamathimg8954cfb2fcef1f8dc372e5d7425e25d0 acp-21-3163-2021-ie00005.svg24pt15ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00005.png in the seasonal snowpack reflect secondary aerosol formation and post-depositional changes, resulting in very different spatial deposition patterns: inline-formula M16inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO normal 3 - 25pt16ptsvg-formulamathimg48a6d5724cc017ced9c974ab9a81c03a acp-21-3163-2021-ie00006.svg25pt16ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00006.png has its highest loading in north-western Spitsbergen and inline-formula M17inlinescrollmathml chem normal NH normal 4 + 24pt15ptsvg-formulamathimg8b20487e53d7ab6a3bf592e9df90e3eb acp-21-3163-2021-ie00007.svg24pt15ptacp-21-3163-2021-ie00007.png in the south-west. The inline-formulaBr enrichment in snow is highest in north-eastern glacier sites closest to areas of extensive sea-ice coverage. Spatial correlation patterns between inline-formulaNa+ and inline-formulaδ18O suggest that the influence of long-range transport of aerosols on snow chemistry is proportionally greater above 600–700 m a.s.l.

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Barbaro, Elena / Koziol, Krystyna / Björkman, Mats P. / et al: Measurement report: Spatial variations in ionic chemistry and water-stable isotopes in the snowpack on glaciers across Svalbard during the 2015–2016 snow accumulation season. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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