Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, India

Stewart, Gareth J.; Acton, W. Joe F.; Nelson, Beth S.; Vaughan, Adam R.; Hopkins, James R.; Arya, Rahul; Mondal, Arnab; Jangirh, Ritu; Ahlawat, Sakshi; Yadav, Lokesh; Sharma, Sudhir K.; Dunmore, Rachel E.; Yunus, Siti S. M.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko; Mullinger, Neil; Gadi, Ranu; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Tripathi, Nidhi; Rickard, Andrew R.; Lee, James D.; Mandal, Tuhin K.; Hamilton, Jacqueline F.

Twenty-nine different fuel types used in residential dwellings in northern India were collected from across Delhi (76 samples in total). Emission factors of a wide range of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (192 compounds in total) were measured during controlled burning experiments using dual-channel gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (DC-GC-FID), two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC inline-formula× GC-FID), proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and solid-phase extraction two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPE-GC inline-formula× GC–ToF-MS). On average, 94 % speciation of total measured NMVOC emissions was achieved across all fuel types. The largest contributors to emissions from most fuel types were small non-aromatic oxygenated species, phenolics and furanics. The emission factors (in g kginline-formula−1) for total gas-phase NMVOCs were fuelwood (18.7, 4.3–96.7), cow dung cake (62.0, 35.3–83.0), crop residue (37.9, 8.9–73.8), charcoal (5.4, 2.4–7.9), sawdust (72.4, 28.6–115.5), municipal solid waste (87.3, 56.6–119.1) and liquefied petroleum gas (5.7, 1.9–9.8).

The emission factors measured in this study allow for better characterisation, evaluation and understanding of the air quality impacts of residential solid-fuel combustion in India.



Stewart, Gareth J. / Acton, W. Joe F. / Nelson, Beth S. / et al: Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, India. 2021. Copernicus Publications.


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