The Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model for CMIP6 HighResMIP simulations (NICAM16-S): experimental design, model description, and impacts of model updates

Kodama, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoki; Seiki, Tatsuya; Yashiro, Hisashi; Noda, Akira T.; Nakano, Masuo; Yamada, Yohei; Roh, Woosub; Satoh, Masaki; Nitta, Tomoko; Goto, Daisuke; Miura, Hiroaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Miyakawa, Tomoki; Chen, Ying-Wen; Sugi, Masato

The Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM), a global model with an icosahedral grid system, has been under development for nearly two decades. This paper describes NICAM16-S, the latest stable version of NICAM (NICAM.16), modified for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6, High Resolution Model Intercomparison Project (HighResMIP). Major updates of NICAM.12, a previous version used for climate simulations, included updates of the cloud microphysics scheme and land surface model, introduction of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and a subgrid-scale orographic gravity wave drag scheme, and improvement of the coupling between the cloud microphysics and the radiation schemes. External forcings were updated to follow the protocol of the HighResMIP. A series of short-term sensitivity experiments were performed to determine and understand the impacts of these various model updates on the simulated mean states. The NICAM16-S simulations demonstrated improvements in the ice water content, high cloud amount, surface air temperature over the Arctic region, location and strength of zonal mean subtropical jet, and shortwave radiation over Africa and South Asia. Some long-standing biases, such as the double intertropical convergence zone and smaller low cloud amount, still exist or are even worse in some cases, suggesting further necessity for understanding their mechanisms, upgrading schemes and parameter settings, and enhancing horizontal and vertical resolutions.

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Kodama, Chihiro / Ohno, Tomoki / Seiki, Tatsuya / et al: The Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model for CMIP6 HighResMIP simulations (NICAM16-S): experimental design, model description, and impacts of model updates. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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