Revisiting paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in slowly rotating systems: how long is the long range?

Bellomo, Giovanni; Ravera, Enrico; Calderone, Vito; Botta, Mauro; Fragai, Marco; Parigi, Giacomo; Luchinat, Claudio

Cross-relaxation terms in paramagnetic systems that reorient rigidly with slow tumbling times can increase the effective longitudinal relaxation rates of protons of more than 1 order of magnitude. This is evaluated by simulating the time evolution of the nuclear magnetization using a complete relaxation rate-matrix approach. The calculations show that the Solomon dependence of the paramagnetic relaxation rates on the metal–proton distance (as inline-formular−6) can be incorrect for protons farther than 15 Å from the metal and thus can cause sizable errors in inline-formulaR1-derived distance restraints used, for instance, for protein structure determination. Furthermore, the chemical exchange of these protons with bulk water protons can enhance the relaxation rate of the solvent protons by far more than expected from the paramagnetic Solomon equation. Therefore, it may contribute significantly to the water proton relaxation rates measured at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnetic fields in the presence of slow-rotating nanoparticles containing paramagnetic ions and a large number of exchangeable surface protons.

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Bellomo, Giovanni / Ravera, Enrico / Calderone, Vito / et al: Revisiting paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in slowly rotating systems: how long is the long range?. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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