GTS v1.0: a macrophysics scheme for climate models based on a probability density function

Shiu, Chein-Jung; Wang, Yi-Chi; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung; Chen, Wei-Ting; Pan, Hua-Lu; Sun, Ruiyu; Chen, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Cheng-An

Cloud macrophysics schemes are unique parameterizations for general circulation models. We propose an approach based on a probability density function (PDF) that utilizes cloud condensates and saturation ratios to replace the assumption of critical relative humidity (RH). We test this approach, called the Global Forecast System (GFS) – Taiwan Earth System Model (TaiESM) – Sundqvist (GTS) scheme, using the macrophysics scheme within the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.3 (CAM5.3) framework. Via single-column model results, the new approach simulates the cloud fraction (CF)–RH distributions closer to those of the observations when compared to those of the default CAM5.3 scheme. We also validate the impact of the GTS scheme on global climate simulations with satellite observations. The simulated CF is comparable to CloudSat/Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data. Comparisons of the vertical distributions of CF and cloud water content (CWC), as functions of large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic parameters, with the CloudSat/CALIPSO data suggest that the GTS scheme can closely simulate observations. This is particularly noticeable for thermodynamic parameters, such as RH, upper-tropospheric temperature, and total precipitable water, implying that our scheme can simulate variation in CF associated with RH more reliably than the default scheme. Changes in CF and CWC would affect climatic fields and large-scale circulation via cloud–radiation interaction. Both climatological means and annual cycles of many of the GTS-simulated variables are improved compared with the default scheme, particularly with respect to water vapor and RH fields. Different PDF shapes in the GTS scheme also significantly affect global simulations.

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Shiu, Chein-Jung / Wang, Yi-Chi / Hsu, Huang-Hsiung / et al: GTS v1.0: a macrophysics scheme for climate models based on a probability density function. 2021. Copernicus Publications.

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