In-cloud scavenging scheme for sectional aerosol modules – implementation in the framework of the Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications version 2.0 (SALSA2.0) global aerosol module

Holopainen, Eemeli; Kokkola, Harri; Laakso, Anton; Kühn, Thomas

In this study we introduce an in-cloud wet deposition scheme for liquid and ice phase clouds for global aerosol–climate models which use a size-segregated aerosol description. For in-cloud nucleation scavenging, the scheme uses cloud droplet activation and ice nucleation rates obtained from the host model. For in-cloud impaction scavenging, we used a method where the removal rate depends on the wet aerosol size and cloud droplet radii. We used the latest release version of ECHAM-HAMMOZ (ECHAM6.3-HAM2.3-MOZ1.0) with the Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications version 2.0 (SALSA) microphysics package to test and compare our scheme. The scheme was compared to a scheme that uses fixed scavenging coefficients. The comparison included vertical profiles and mass and number distributions of wet deposition fluxes of different aerosol compounds and for different latitude bands. Using the scheme presented here, mass concentrations for black carbon, organic carbon, sulfate, and the number concentration of particles with diameters larger than 100 inline-formulanm are higher than using fixed scavenging coefficients, with the largest differences in the vertical profiles in the Arctic. On the other hand, the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 inline-formulanm in diameter show a decrease, especially in the Arctic region. These results could indicate that, compared to fixed scavenging coefficients, nucleation scavenging is less efficient, resulting in an increase in the number concentration of particles larger than 100 inline-formulanm. In addition, changes in rates of impaction scavenging and new particle formation (NPF) can be the main cause of reduction in the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 inline-formulanm. Without further adjustments in the host model, our wet deposition scheme produced unrealistically high aerosol concentrations, especially at high altitudes. This also leads to a spuriously long lifetime of black carbon aerosol. To find a better setup for simulating aerosol vertical profiles and transport, sensitivity simulations were conducted where aerosol emission distribution and hygroscopicity were altered. Vertical profiles of aerosol species simulated with the scheme which uses fixed scavenging rates and the abovementioned sensitivity simulations were evaluated against vertical profiles from aircraft observations. The lifetimes of different aerosol compounds were also evaluated against the ensemble mean of models involved in the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AEROCOM) project. The best comparison between the observations and the model was achieved with our wet deposition scheme when black carbon was emitted internally mixed with soluble compounds instead of keeping it externally mixed. This also produced atmospheric lifetimes for the other species which were comparable to the AEROCOM model means.

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Holopainen, Eemeli / Kokkola, Harri / Laakso, Anton / et al: In-cloud scavenging scheme for sectional aerosol modules – implementation in the framework of the Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications version 2.0 (SALSA2.0) global aerosol module. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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