Significant wintertime PM 2.5 mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2019: observational constraints on anthropogenic emission controls

Wang, Liqiang; Yu, Shaocai; Li, Pengfei; Chen, Xue; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Mengying; Mehmood, Khalid; Liu, Weiping; Chai, Tianfeng; Zhu, Yannian; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Seinfeld, John H.

Ambient fine particulate matter (PMinline-formula2.5) mitigation relies strongly on anthropogenic emission control measures, the actual effectiveness of which is challenging to pinpoint owing to the complex synergies between anthropogenic emissions and meteorology. Here, observational constraints on model simulations allow us to derive not only reliable PMinline-formula2.5 evolution but also accurate meteorological fields. On this basis, we isolate meteorological factors to achieve reliable estimates of surface PMinline-formula2.5 responses to both long-term and emergency emission control measures from 2016 to 2019 over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. The results show that long-term emission control strategies play a crucial role in curbing PMinline-formula2.5 levels, especially in the megacities and other areas with abundant anthropogenic emissions. The G20 summit hosted in Hangzhou in 2016 provides a unique and ideal opportunity involving the most stringent, even unsustainable, emergency emission control measures. These emergency measures lead to the largest decrease (inline-formula∼ 35 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3, inline-formula∼ 59 %) in PMinline-formula2.5 concentrations in Hangzhou. The hotspots also emerge in megacities, especially in Shanghai (32 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3, 51 %), Nanjing (27 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3, 55 %), and Hefei (24 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3, 44 %) because of the emergency measures. Compared to the long-term policies from 2016 to 2019, the emergency emission control measures implemented during the G20 Summit achieve more significant decreases in PMinline-formula2.5 concentrations (17 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3 and 41 %) over most of the whole domain, especially in Hangzhou (24 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3, 48 %) and Shanghai (21 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3, 45 %). By extrapolation, we derive insight into the magnitude and spatial distribution of PMinline-formula2.5 mitigation potential across the YRD, revealing significantly additional room for curbing PMinline-formula2.5 levels.

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Wang, Liqiang / Yu, Shaocai / Li, Pengfei / et al: Significant wintertime PM2.5 mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2019: observational constraints on anthropogenic emission controls. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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