URBAN-RURAL: “TIBURTINO” DISTRICT IN ROME AND RURAL VILLAGE “LA MARTELLA” IN MATERA AS EMBLEMATIC CASES OF SETTLEMENTS DURING THE ITALIAN RECONSTRUCTION
The architectural and urbanistic events of the Reconstruction in the post-World War II period in Italy are still today a topic of great relevance that deserves to be examined in depth, especially in relation to some examples of historical-testimonial value present, in particular, in the U.N.R.R.A. Casas (1947–62) development/project and the INA Casa Plan (1949–63). The revision of the principles of the modern movement in many construction experiences, established a sort of break in favor of an attempt to reinterpret the architectural tradition in a contemporary and local key so as to respond to the needs of local communities, through the use of a moderate and authentic language that represented them. In this sense, the trend of Italian Architectural Neorealism constitutes an event and an experience of great interest. The re-reading of that season deserves to be examined in depth through the analysis of two of the most emblematic cases: the “Tiburtino” INA Casa district in Rome (1949–54) and the “La Martella” U.N.R.R.A. Casas rural village in Matera (1951–55). In the two case studies, the dichotomy between urban-rural is underlined by the experimentation of new urban practices from an organicist approach, innovative typological aggregations and the search for a common language that would adopt the canons of the vernacular tradition with the efficiency of pre-war functionalism. The differences, but also the similarities, between the two cases will be analyzed in this contribution both from an urbanistic and typological-architectural point of view, in reference both to the different design approaches (some of the designers are involved in both experiences) and to the transformations of the two settlements in recent decades. The aim of the research work is to propose hypotheses for a sustainable recovery of the settlements.