CENTIMETRE-ACCURACY IN FORESTS AND URBAN CANYONS – COMBINING A HIGH-PERFORMANCE IMAGE-BASED MOBILE MAPPING BACKPACK WITH NEW GEOREFERENCING METHODS
Advances in digitalization technologies lead to rapid and massive changes in infrastructure management. New collaborative processes and workflows require detailed, accurate and up-to-date 3D geodata. Image-based web services with 3D measurement functionality, for example, transfer dangerous and costly inspection and measurement tasks from the field to the office workplace. In this contribution, we introduced an image-based backpack mobile mapping system and new georeferencing methods for capture previously inaccessible outdoor locations. We carried out large-scale performance investigations at two different test sites located in a city centre and in a forest area. We compared the performance of direct, SLAM-based and image-based georeferencing under demanding real-world conditions. Both test sites include areas with restricted GNSS reception, poor illumination, and uniform or ambiguous geometry, which create major challenges for reliable and accurate georeferencing. In our comparison of georeferencing methods, image-based georeferencing improved the median precision of coordinate measurement over direct georeferencing by a factor of 10–15 to 3 mm. Image-based georeferencing also showed a superior performance in terms of absolute accuracies with results in the range from 4.3 cm to 13.2 cm. Our investigations showed a great potential for complementing 3D image-based geospatial web-services of cities as well as for creating such web services for forest applications. In addition, such accurately georeferenced 3D imagery has an enormous potential for future visual localization and augmented reality applications.