SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION OF POINT CLOUDS WITH POINTNET AND KPCONV ARCHITECTURES APPLIED TO RAILWAY TUNNELS
Transport infrastructure monitoring has lately attracted increasing attention due to the rise in extreme natural hazards posed by climate change. Mobile Mapping Systems gather information regarding the state of the assets, which allows for more efficient decision-making. These systems provide information in the form of three-dimensional point clouds. Point cloud analysis through deep learning has emerged as a focal research area due to its wide application in areas such as autonomous driving. This paper aims to apply the pioneering PointNet, and the current state-of-the-art KPConv architectures to perform scene segmentation of railway tunnels, in order to validate their employability over heuristic classification methods. The approach is to perform a multi-class classification that classifies the most relevant components of tunnels: ground, lining, wiring and rails. Both architectures are trained from scratch with heuristically classified point clouds of two different railway tunnels. Results show that, while both architectures are suitable for the proposed classification task, KPConv outperforms PointNet with F1-scores over 97% for ground, lining and wiring classes, and over 90% for rails. In addition, KPConv is tested using transfer learning, which gives F1-scores slightly lower than for the model training from scratch but shows better generalization capabilities.