INVESTIGATION ON MULTI-SENSOR FUSION STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVED ORIENTATION DETERMINATION IN MOBILE PHONE IMAGING APPLICATIONS
Thanks to the rapid technological progress in the field of mobile devices, smartphones are increasingly becoming valuable for science. They can serve as photogrammetric measurement devices with built-in cameras, micro-electro-mechanical systems for orientation and position assessment, as well as powerful processing units allowing field-based data acquisition and processing. This paper outlines a comprehensive investigation focusing on the accuracy and stability of smartphone camera rotation parameters determined by built-in smartphone sensors. For that purpose, the rotation parameters were measured under a range of different conditions. Four test scenarios were defined considering indoor- and outdoor measurements using three different devices being in static and dynamic modes. Furthermore, the influence of magnetic perturbations was investigated. The rotation parameters were determined from the measurements applying different sensor fusion approaches. Reference values for accuracy assessment were provided by a superior precision inertial measurement unit that measured the rotation parameters simultaneously to the smartphone in each experiment. The analysis of the smartphone-based rotation parameters, separated in the Euler angles azimuth, pitch and roll, shows average accuracies below 2° for pitch and roll. In comparison, azimuth shows significantly lower accuracies of more than 30° especially when the smartphone is in motion and when it is exposed to magnetic perturbations. In this regard, advanced multi-sensor fusion approaches were examined that handle such interferences to considerably improve the accuracy of azimuth measurements. In conclusion, a summary of accuracies and stabilities to be expected from smartphone sensors is given referring to ambient conditions and investigated sensor fusion strategies.