Taiwan Earth System Model Version 1: description and evaluation of mean state

Lee, Wei-Liang; Wang, Yi-Chi; Shiu, Chein-Jung; Tsai, I-chun; Tu, Chia-Ying; Lan, Yung-Yao; Chen, Jen-Ping; Pan, Hua-Lu; Hsu, Huang-Hsiung

The Taiwan Earth System Model (TaiESM) version 1 is developed based on Community Earth System Model version 1.2.2 of National Center for Atmospheric Research. Several innovative physical and chemical parameterizations, including trigger functions for deep convection, cloud macrophysics, aerosol, and three-dimensional radiation–topography interaction, as well as a one-dimensional mixed-layer model optional for the atmosphere component, are incorporated. The precipitation variability, such as diurnal cycle and propagation of convection systems, is improved in TaiESM. TaiESM demonstrates good model stability in the 500-year preindustrial simulation in terms of the net flux at the top of the model, surface temperatures, and sea ice concentration. In the historical simulation, although the warming before 1935 is weak, TaiESM captures the increasing trend of temperature after 1950 well. The current climatology of TaiESM during 1979–2005 is evaluated by observational and reanalysis datasets. Cloud amounts are too large in TaiESM, but their cloud forcing is only slightly weaker than observational data. The mean bias of the sea surface temperature is almost 0, whereas the surface air temperatures over land and sea ice regions exhibit cold biases. The overall performance of TaiESM is above average among models in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, particularly in that the bias of precipitation is smallest. However, several common discrepancies shared by most models still exist, such as the double Intertropical Convergence Zone bias in precipitation and warm bias over the Southern Ocean.

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Lee, Wei-Liang / Wang, Yi-Chi / Shiu, Chein-Jung / et al: Taiwan Earth System Model Version 1: description and evaluation of mean state. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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