THE HANDHELD MOBILE LASER SCANNERS AS A TOOL FOR ACCURATE POSITIONING UNDER FOREST CANOPY
Nowadays it is important to shift positional accuracy of object measurements under the forest canopy closer to the accuracy standards for land surveys due to the requirements in the field of ecosystem protection, sustainable forest management, property relations, and land register. Simultaneously, it is desirable to use the technology of environmental data acquisition which is not time consuming and cost demanding. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are the most used for positioning today. However, the usefulness and also the accuracy of the measurements with this technology depend on various factors (the strength of the GNSS signal, the geometric position of satellites, the multipath effect etc.). Based on the above mentioned facts, the usability of technology independent of GNSS indicates an ideal solution for positioning under the forest canopy. Several studies have studied the usability of Handheld Mobile Laser Scanners (HMLS) in complex environment. The goal of this paper was to verify a new data collection approach (HMLS with Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technology) for the forest environment practice. The main objective of our study was to reach a precision which complies with the accuracy standards for land surveys. The RMSE of derived positions from point cloud, produced by SLAM devices were 25.3 cm and 28.4 cm, for ZEB REVO and ZEB HORIZON, the handheld mobile laser SLAM scanners used in this study. ZEB HORIZON achieved twice as big accuracy of diameter of breast height (DBH) estimation as ZEB REVO.