IMPACT OF URBAN FORMS ON 3D BUILT-UP INTENSITY EXPANSION RATE FROM AERIAL STEREO-IMAGERY
Urban areas have been cited to be contributors to changing climatic conditions. Conversion of vegetated areas to impervious surfaces causes an alteration of surface temperatures, where impervious surfaces absorb and store incoming radiation during the day, releasing it slowly at night. This causes the urban heat island effect where temperatures in urban areas are higher than rural areas during night. Extreme weather conditions experienced in urban areas include heat waves, intense rainfall resulting to flash floods, destruction of infrastructure facilities. The research involved the use of time-series of stereo-aerial images acquired in 1978, 2000 and 2017. Building footprints were digitized and using digital elevation models, building heights were derived and volumes calculated. Road volumes were calculated using minimum standards of road construction and the total built-up volume was determined. The ground coverage ratio (GCR) and built-up volume densities (BVD) of the built-up areas was calculated from area and volumes from road and building values. Results indicate the mean GCR and BVD in Upper Hill is within the low density range. Mean building height from 1978 to 2017 are in the low-rise range with significant rise in building height and volumes between 1998 and 2017. The 3D built-up intensity expansion rate ranged between −4.28% to 56.80% per annum with a mean of 19.6% per annum. Roads and pavements also have a significant influence on the built-up density and should therefore be considered in planning policies.