# Marine biogeochemical cycling and oceanic CO 2 uptake simulated by the NUIST Earth System Model version 3 (NESM v3)

In this study, we evaluate the performance of the Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST) Earth System Model version 3 (hereafter NESM v3) in simulating the marine biogeochemical cycle and carbon dioxide (inline-formulaCO2) uptake. Compared with observations, the NESM v3 reproduces the large-scale patterns of biogeochemical fields reasonably well in the upper ocean, including nutrients, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic, chlorophyll, and net primary production. Some discrepancies between model simulations and observations are identified and the possible causes are investigated. In the upper ocean, the simulated biases in biogeochemical fields are mainly associated with shortcomings in the simulated ocean circulation. Weak upwelling in the Indian Ocean suppresses the nutrient entrainment to the upper ocean, thus reducing biological activities and resulting in an underestimation of net primary production and the chlorophyll concentration. In the Pacific and the Southern Ocean, nutrients are overestimated as a result of strong iron limitation and excessive vertical mixing. Alkalinity is also overestimated in high-latitude oceans due to excessive convective mixing. The major discrepancy in biogeochemical fields is that the model overestimates nutrients, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon in the deep North Pacific, which is caused by the excessive deep ocean remineralization. The model reasonably reproduces present-day oceanic inline-formulaCO2 uptake. Model-simulated cumulative oceanic inline-formulaCO2 uptake is 149 PgC between 1850 and 2016, which compares well with data-based estimates of inline-formula150±20 PgC. In the 1 % yrinline-formula−1inline-formulaCO2 increase (1ptinline-formulaCO2) experiment, the diagnosed carbon-climate (inline-formula $M10inlinescrollmathml\mathrm{italic \gamma }=-normal 7.9$ 44pt12ptsvg-formulamathimga168515d3137e6742ad0c87a4c346373 gmd-13-3119-2020-ie00001.svg44pt12ptgmd-13-3119-2020-ie00001.png  PgC Kinline-formula−1) and carbon-concentration sensitivity parameters (inline-formulaβ=0.88 PgC ppminline-formula−1) in the NESM v3 are comparable with those in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models (inline-formulaβ: 0.69 to 0.91 PgC ppminline-formula−1; inline-formulaγ: inline-formula−2.4 to inline-formula−12.1 PgC Kinline-formula−1). The nonlinear interaction between carbon-concentration and carbon-climate sensitivity in the NESM v3 accounts for 10.3 % of the total carbon uptake, which is within the range of CMIP5 model results (3.6 %–10.6 %). Overall, the NESM v3 can be employed as a useful modeling tool to investigate large-scale interactions between the ocean carbon cycle and climate change.

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Dai, Yifei / Cao, Long / Wang, Bin: Marine biogeochemical cycling and oceanic CO2 uptake simulated by the NUIST Earth System Model version 3 (NESM v3). 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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