Characteristics of methanesulfonic acid, non-sea-salt sulfate and organic carbon aerosols over the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

Jung, Jinyoung; Hong, Sang-Bum; Chen, Meilian; Hur, Jin; Jiao, Liping; Lee, Youngju; Park, Keyhong; Hahm, Doshik; Choi, Jung-Ok; Yang, Eun Jin; Park, Jisoo; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, SangHoon

To investigate the characteristics of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSAinline-formula(p)), non-sea-salt sulfate (nss inline-formula M2inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg74b4be02f6bf1e477b176a208786a61b acp-20-5405-2020-ie00001.svg29pt17ptacp-20-5405-2020-ie00001.png ) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols, aerosol and seawater samples were collected over the Southern Ocean (43–70inline-formula S) and the Amundsen Sea (70–75inline-formula S) during the ANA06B cruise conducted in the austral summer of 2016 aboard the Korean icebreaker IBR/V Araon. Over the Southern Ocean, the atmospheric MSAinline-formula(p) concentration was low (inline-formula0.10±0.002inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3), whereas its concentration increased sharply up to 0.57 inline-formulaµg minline-formula−3 in the Amundsen Sea where Phaeocystis antarctica (P. antarctica), a producer of dimethylsulfide (DMS), was the dominant phytoplankton species. Unlike MSAinline-formula(p), the mean nss inline-formula M12inlinescrollmathml chem normal SO normal 4 normal 2 - 29pt17ptsvg-formulamathimg97cb19aa5ca8b26a6d7fd7d4bad307d2 acp-20-5405-2020-ie00002.svg29pt17ptacp-20-5405-2020-ie00002.png concentration in the Amundsen Sea was comparable to that in the Southern Ocean. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations over the Southern Ocean and the Amundsen Sea varied from 0.048 to 0.16 and 0.070 to 0.18 inline-formulaµgC minline-formula−3, with averages of inline-formula0.087±0.038 and inline-formula0.097±0.038inline-formulaµgC minline-formula−3, respectively. For water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC), its mean concentrations over the Southern Ocean and the Amundsen Sea were inline-formula0.25±0.13 and inline-formula0.26±0.10inline-formulaµgC minline-formula−3, varying from 0.083 to 0.49 and 0.12 to 0.38 inline-formulaµgC minline-formula−3, respectively. WIOC was the dominant organic carbon species in both the Southern Ocean and the Amundsen Sea, accounting for 73 %–75 % of the total aerosol organic carbon. inline-formula M25inlinescrollmathml chem normal WSOC / normal Na + 62pt14ptsvg-formulamathimg12dae9807fce924696370d5f814c6d36 acp-20-5405-2020-ie00003.svg62pt14ptacp-20-5405-2020-ie00003.png and inline-formula M26inlinescrollmathml chem normal WIOC / normal Na + 58pt14ptsvg-formulamathimg65d1d9da7da5fef8d6eccf2d81244993 acp-20-5405-2020-ie00004.svg58pt14ptacp-20-5405-2020-ie00004.png ratios in the fine-mode aerosol particles were higher, especially in the Amundsen Sea where biological productivity was much higher than the Southern Ocean. The fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic aerosols investigated using a fluorescence excitation–emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM–PARAFAC) revealed that protein-like components were dominant in our marine aerosol samples, representing 69 %–91 % of the total intensity. Protein-like components also showed a significant positive relationship with the relative biomass of diatoms; however, they were negatively correlated with the relative biomass of P. antarctica. These results suggest that the protein-like component is most likely produced as a result of biological processes of diatoms in the Amundsen Sea.

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Jung, Jinyoung / Hong, Sang-Bum / Chen, Meilian / et al: Characteristics of methanesulfonic acid, non-sea-salt sulfate and organic carbon aerosols over the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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