Estimates of lightning NO x production based on high-resolution OMI NO 2 retrievals over the continental US

Zhang, Xin; Yin, Yan; van der A, Ronald; Lapierre, Jeff L.; Chen, Qian; Kuang, Xiang; Yan, Shuqi; Chen, Jinghua; He, Chuan; Shi, Rulin

Lightning serves as the dominant source of nitrogen oxides (inline-formula M4inlinescrollmathml chem normal NO x = normal NO + normal NO normal 2 80pt13ptsvg-formulamathimga1a9a6720bb1e0b9b83931d45ed6d7c4 amt-13-1709-2020-ie00001.svg80pt13ptamt-13-1709-2020-ie00001.png ) in the upper troposphere (UT), with a strong impact on ozone chemistry and the hydroxyl radical production. However, the production efficiency (PE) of lightning nitrogen oxides (Linline-formulaNOx) is still quite uncertain (32–1100 mol NO per flash). Satellite measurements are a powerful tool to estimate Linline-formulaNOx directly compared to conventional platforms. To apply satellite data in both clean and polluted regions, a new algorithm for calculating Linline-formulaNOx has been developed that uses the Berkeley High-Resolution (BEHR) v3.0B inline-formulaNO2 retrieval algorithm and the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). Linline-formulaNOx PE over the continental US is estimated using the inline-formulaNO2 product of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) data. Focusing on the summer season during 2014, we find that the lightning inline-formulaNO2 (Linline-formulaNO2) PE is inline-formula32±15 mol inline-formulaNO2 per flash and inline-formula6±3 mol inline-formulaNO2 per stroke while Linline-formulaNOx PE is inline-formula90±50 mol inline-formulaNOx per flash and inline-formula17±10 mol inline-formulaNOx per stroke. Results reveal that our method reduces the sensitivity to the background inline-formulaNO2 and includes much of the below-cloud Linline-formulaNO2. As the Linline-formulaNOx parameterization varies in studies, the sensitivity of our calculations to the setting of the amount of lightning NO (LNO) is evaluated. Careful consideration of the ratio of Linline-formulaNO2 to inline-formulaNO2 is also needed, given its large influence on the estimation of Linline-formulaNO2 PE.

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Zhang, Xin / Yin, Yan / van der A, Ronald / et al: Estimates of lightning NOx production based on high-resolution OMI NO2 retrievals over the continental US. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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