# Ammonia measurements from space with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder: characteristics and applications

Despite its clear importance, the monitoring of atmospheric ammonia, including its sources, sinks, and links to the greater nitrogen cycle, remains limited. Satellite data are helping to fill the gap in monitoring from sporadic conventional ground- and aircraft-based observations to better inform policymakers and assess the impact of any ammonia-related policies. Presented is a description and survey that demonstrate the capabilities of the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) ammonia product for monitoring, air quality forecast model evaluation, dry deposition estimates, and emission estimates from an agricultural hotspot. For model evaluation, while there is a general agreement in the spatial allocation of known major agricultural ammonia hotspots across North America, the satellite observations show some high-latitude regions during peak forest fire activity often have ammonia concentrations approaching those in agricultural hotspots. The CrIS annual ammonia dry depositions in Canada (excluding the territories) and the US have average and annual variability values of inline-formula $M1inlinescrollmathml\sim normal 0.8±normal 0.08$ 60pt10ptsvg-formulamathimgb41f2b9e60728f0efe500de0e698b809 acp-20-2277-2020-ie00001.svg60pt10ptacp-20-2277-2020-ie00001.png and inline-formula $M2inlinescrollmathml\sim normal 1.23±normal 0.09$ 66pt10ptsvg-formulamathimg80356d531d0fac02abc0cad0b9339e0e acp-20-2277-2020-ie00002.svg66pt10ptacp-20-2277-2020-ie00002.png  Tg N yrinline-formula−1, respectively. These satellite-derived dry depositions of reactive nitrogen from inline-formulaNH3 with inline-formulaNO2 show an annual ratio of inline-formulaNH3 compared to their sum (inline-formulaNH3+NO2) of inline-formula∼82 % and inline-formula∼55 % in Canada and the US, respectively. Furthermore, we show the use of CrIS satellite observations to estimate annual and seasonal emissions near Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, a region dominated by high-emission concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs); the satellite annual emission estimate of inline-formula37.1±6.3 kt yrinline-formula−1 is at least double the value reported in current bottom-up emission inventories for this region.

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Shephard, Mark W. / Dammers, Enrico / Cady-Pereira, Karen E. / et al: Ammonia measurements from space with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder: characteristics and applications. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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