Early morning peaks in the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the northern coast of West Java and possible influencing factors

Yulihastin, Erma; Wahyu Hadi, Tri; Sari Ningsih, Nining; Ridho Syahputra, Muhammad

The diurnal cycles of precipitation over the northern coast of West Java have been studied using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Real Time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analyses (TMPA-RT) products with records spanning from 2000 to 2016, with emphasis on the occurrences of early morning precipitation peaks. Diurnal precipitation over the study area during November to March is basically characterized by precipitation peaks that occur in the afternoon to evening time (15:00–21:00 LT), but secondary peaks in the night to morning time (01:00–07:00 LT) are also pronounced in January and February. The harmonic analysis method was then applied to data of January and February to objectively determine the diurnal phase and classify the timing of precipitation for each day into three categories, i.e. afternoon-to-evening precipitation (AEP), early morning precipitation (EMP), and late morning precipitation (LMP) with peaks that occur in the time windows of 13:00–24:00, 01:00–04:00, and 05:00–12:00 LT, respectively. In terms of frequency of occurrence, AEP, EMP, and LMP constitute 55 %, 18.9 %, and 26.1 % of total samples of precipitation events. In spite of the smallest percentage, EMP events are characterized by seaward (as well as landward) propagation, flat phase distribution, and large mean amplitudes. The propagating characteristics of EMP are more prominent, with indications of stronger connectivity between precipitation systems over land and ocean, when data are composited by taking the 99th percentile values in each grid to represent extreme precipitation events. The flat phase distribution of EMP events suggests that the timing of coastal precipitation is not necessarily locked to the phase of land–sea breezes, thus allowing precipitation to occur more randomly. Furthermore, the role of the South China Sea cold tongue (SCS-CT) and cross-equatorial northerly surge (CENS) as influencing factors for the occurrences of the EMP event have also been investigated. In agreement with previous studies, we confirmed that the SCS-CT generally prevails in January and February, and morning precipitation events over the northern coast of West Java mainly occurred when there was more enhanced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling in the South China Sea. Additionally, we found that CENS is the most differential factor with regard to the phase of coastal precipitation. In this case, CENS is positively correlated with SCS-CT and, when associated with EMP events, concurrent enhancement of CENS and SCS-CT is connected to a narrow channelling of strong surface northerly wind anomalies just offshore of Indochina and the Malay Peninsula.

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Yulihastin, Erma / Wahyu Hadi, Tri / Sari Ningsih, Nining / et al: Early morning peaks in the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the northern coast of West Java and possible influencing factors. 2020. Copernicus Publications.

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Rechteinhaber: Erma Yulihastin et al.

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