# Nonlinear deformation and run-up of single tsunami waves of positive polarity: numerical simulations and analytical predictions

The estimate of an individual wave run-up is especially important for tsunami warning and risk assessment, as it allows for evaluating the inundation area. Here, as a model of tsunamis, we use the long single wave of positive polarity. The period of such a wave is rather long, which makes it different from the famous Korteweg–de Vries soliton. This wave nonlinearly deforms during its propagation in the ocean, which results in a steep wave front formation. Situations in which waves approach the coast with a steep front are often observed during large tsunamis, e.g. the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis. Here we study the nonlinear deformation and run-up of long single waves of positive polarity in the conjoined water basin, which consists of the constant depth section and a plane beach. The work is performed numerically and analytically in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory. Analytically, wave propagation along the constant depth section and its run up on a beach are considered independently without taking into account wave interaction with the toe of the bottom slope. The propagation along the bottom of constant depth is described by the Riemann wave, while the wave run-up on a plane beach is calculated using rigorous analytical solutions of the nonlinear shallow-water theory following the Carrier–Greenspan approach. Numerically, we use the finite-volume method with the second-order UNO2 reconstruction in space and the third-order Runge–Kutta scheme with locally adaptive time steps. During wave propagation along the constant depth section, the wave becomes asymmetric with a steep wave front. It is shown that the maximum run-up height depends on the front steepness of the incoming wave approaching the toe of the bottom slope. The corresponding formula for maximum run-up height, which takes into account the wave front steepness, is proposed.

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Abdalazeez, Ahmed A. / Didenkulova, Ira / Dutykh, Denys: Nonlinear deformation and run-up of single tsunami waves of positive polarity: numerical simulations and analytical predictions. 2019. Copernicus Publications.

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