SURFACE VELOCITY DYNAMICS OF SAMUDRA TAPU GLACIER, INDIA FROM 2013 TO 2017 USING LANDSAT-8 DATA
In glacier dynamics, surface velocity of glacier is an important parameter to understand the behaviour of glacier in absence of mass balance and long-term glacier area change information. In present study, surface velocity of Samudra Tapu Glacier, India is estimated using freely available Landsat-8 OLI (PAN) images during 2013–2017. To estimate surface velocity, open source COSI-Corr tool is used which is based on cross-correlation algorithm. Maximum annual surface velocity estimated is 55.68 ± 4.01 m/year during 2015–2016 while the minimum surface velocity being 44.99 ± 4.67 m/year in 2016–2017. The average annual velocity during 2013–2017 was 50.51 ± 4.49 m/year which is higher than other glaciers in Chandra basin. The variation in annual surface velocity is analysed which not only depends on mass loss but also on temperature, pressure and internal drainage. Further, as one moves opposite to glacier terminus, the surface velocity increases with the increase in glacier elevation and slope. The higher surface velocity can be attributed to the fact that Samudra Tapu is a top-heavy glacier based on HI index analysis having larger accumulation area along with high glacier ice-thickness.