LAND MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS IN NEPAL: REPERCUSSIONS OF LAND USE POLICY AND IMPLEMENTATION GAPS IN REGIONAL AND URBAN PLANNING
In lieu of advancement in human civilization from nomadic age to quest for welfare capitalism in recent days, land resources have been one of the most sought after assets for subsequent socio-economic development. The concept of land, once only geo-political has evolved to be interdisciplinary with developmental and managerial aspects in regional and urban planning worldwide making the facets of land management more complex than ever. In the context of modern Nepal, governance in systematic land management appeared during mid-1960 only with establishment of Ministry of Land Reform (MoLR). This paper aims to provide constructive criticism upon institutional fragmentation, and fragile policy and implementation gaps in land use administration which have been bewildering the concepts of regional and urban planning in Nepal. The recitation of this work is primarily based on selected literature review of relevant research on land use planning along with two representative case studies in national context and in international scenario as well. Despite rigorous efforts, the issues of competence in land administration, migration and syndicate in urban real estate remain as the major problems in land management in Nepal. Also, the new state restructuring of federal Nepal has already upraised the challenges in land resources planning for local governments who but seem muddled up in constructing rural economy and strategic urban plan for regional development. Nevertheless, these concerns in regional and urban planning can be addressed through practice of sustainable land management with thoughtful consideration of ambiguities in land use policy and implementation.