Reactive and organic halogen species in three different European coastal environments
We present results of three field campaigns using active longpath DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) for the study of reactive halogen species (RHS) BrO, IO, OIO and I 2. Two recent field campaigns took place in Spring 2002 in Dagebüll at the German North Sea Coast and in Spring 2003 in Lilia at the French Atlantic Coast of Brittany. In addition, data from a campaign in Mace Head, Ireland in 1998 was partly re-evaluated. During the recent field campaigns volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) were determined by a capillary gas chromatograph coupled with an electron capture detector and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ICPMS) in air and water. Due to the inhomogeneous distribution of macroalgae at the German North Sea Coast we found a clear connection between elevated levels of VHOCs and the appearance of macroalgae. Extraordinarily high concentrations of several VHOCs, especially CH 3I and CH 3Br of up to 1830 pptv and 875 pptv, respectively, were observed at the coast of Brittany, demonstrating the outstanding level of bioactivity there. We found CH 2I 2 at levels of up to 20 pptv, and a clear anti-correlation with the appearance of IO. The IO mixing ratio reached up to 7.7±0.5 ppt(pmol/mol) during the day, in reasonable agreement with model studies designed to represent the meteorological and chemical conditions in Brittany. For the two recent campaigns the DOAS spectra were evaluated for BrO, OIO and I 2, but none of these species could be clearly identified (average detection limits around 2 ppt, 3 ppt, 20 ppt, resp., significantly higher in individual cases). Only in the Mace Head spectra evidence was found for the presence of OIO. Since macroalgae under oxidative stress are suggested to be a further source for I 2 in the marine boundary layer, we re-analyzed spectra in the 500–600 nm range taken during the 1998 PARFORCE campaign in Mace Head, Ireland, which had not previously been analyzed for I 2. We identified molecular iodine above the detection limit (~20 ppt), with peak mixing ratios of 61±12 ppt. Since I 2 was undetectable during the Brittany campaign, we suggest that iodine may not be released into the atmosphere by macroalgae in general, but only by a special type of the laminaria species under oxidative stress. Only during periods of extraordinarily low water (spring-tide), the plant is exposed to ambient air and may release gaseous iodine in some way to the atmosphere. The results of our re-analysis of spectra from the PARFORCE campaign in 1998 support this theory. Hence, we feel that we can provide an explanation for the different I 2 levels in Brittany and Mace Head.