Aircraft millimeter-wave passive sensing of cloud liquid water and water vapor during VOCALS-REx
Routine liquid water path measurements and water vapor path are valuable for process studies of the cloudy marine boundary layer and for the assessment of large-scale models. The VOCALS Regional Experiment respected this goal by including a small, inexpensive, upward-pointing millimeter-wavelength passive radiometer on the fourteen research flights of the NCAR C-130 plane, the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR). The radiometer permitted above-cloud retrievals of the free-tropospheric water vapor path (WVP). Retrieved free-tropospheric (above-cloud) water vapor paths possessed a strong longitudinal gradient, with off-shore values of one to two mm and near-coastal values reaching ten mm. The VOCALS-REx free troposphere was drier than that of previous years. Cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) were retrieved from the sub-cloud and cloudbase aircraft legs through a combination of the GVR, remotely-sensed cloud boundary information, and in-situ thermodynamic data. The absolute (between-leg) and relative (within-leg) accuracy of the LWP retrievals at 1 Hz (~100 m) resolution was estimated at 20 g m −2 and 3 g m −2 respectively for well-mixed conditions, and 25 g m −2 absolute uncertainty for decoupled conditions where the input WVP specification was more uncertain. Retrieved liquid water paths matched adiabatic values derived from coincident cloud thickness measurements exceedingly well. A significant contribution of the GVR dataset was the extended information on the thin clouds, with 62 % (28 %) of the retrieved LWPs <100 (40) g m −2. Coastal LWPs values were lower than those offshore. For the four dedicated 20° S flights, the mean (median) coastal LWP was 67 (61) g m −2, increasing to 166 (120) g m −2 1500 km offshore. The overall LWP cloud fraction from thirteen research flights was 63 %, higher than that of adiabatic LWPs at 40 %, but lower than the lidar-determined cloud cover of 85 %, further testifying to the frequent occurrence of thin clouds.