Secondary organic aerosol formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber

Nordin, E. Z.; Eriksson, A. C.; Roldin, P.; Nilsson, P. T.; Carlsson, J. E.; Kajos, M. K.; Hellén, H.; Wittbom, C.; Rissler, J.; Löndahl, J.; Swietlicki, E.; Svenningsson, B.; Bohgard, M.; Kulmala, M.; Hallquist, M.; Pagels, J. H.

Gasoline vehicles have recently been pointed out as potentially the main source of anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in megacities. However, there is a lack of laboratory studies to systematically investigate SOA formation in real-world exhaust. In this study, SOA formation from pure aromatic precursors, idling and cold start gasoline exhaust from three passenger vehicles (EURO2–EURO4) were investigated with photo-oxidation experiments in a 6 m 3 smog chamber. The experiments were carried out down to atmospherically relevant organic aerosol mass concentrations. The characterization instruments included a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a proton transfer mass spectrometer. It was found that gasoline exhaust readily forms SOA with a signature aerosol mass spectrum similar to the oxidized organic aerosol that commonly dominates the organic aerosol mass spectra downwind of urban areas. After a cumulative OH exposure of ~5 × 10 6 cm −3 h, the formed SOA was 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than the primary OA emissions. The SOA mass spectrum from a relevant mixture of traditional light aromatic precursors gave f43 ( mass fraction at m/z = 43), approximately two times higher than to the gasoline SOA. However O : C and H : C ratios were similar for the two cases. Classical C 6–C 9 light aromatic precursors were responsible for up to 60% of the formed SOA, which is significantly higher than for diesel exhaust. Important candidates for additional precursors are higher-order aromatic compounds such as C 10 and C 11 light aromatics, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalenes. We conclude that approaches using only light aromatic precursors give an incomplete picture of the magnitude of SOA formation and the SOA composition from gasoline exhaust.



Nordin, E. Z. / Eriksson, A. C. / Roldin, P. / et al: Secondary organic aerosol formation from idling gasoline passenger vehicle emissions investigated in a smog chamber. 2013. Copernicus Publications.


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