Air quality over Europe: modelling gaseous and particulate pollutants
Air quality over Europe using Models-3 (i.e., CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modelling system is performed for winter (i.e., January 2006) and summer (i.e., July 2006) months with the 2006 TNO gridded anthropogenic emissions database. Higher ozone mixing ratios are predicted in southern Europe while higher NO 2 levels are simulated over western Europe. Elevated SO 2 values are simulated over eastern Europe and higher PM 2.5 concentrations over eastern and western Europe. Regional average results suggest that NO 2 and PM 2.5 are underpredicted, SO 2 is overpredicted, while Max8hrO 3 is overpredicted for low mixing ratios and is underpredicted for the higher mixing ratios. However, in a number of countries observed and predicted values are in good agreement for the pollutants examined here. Speciated PM 2.5 components suggest that NO 3 is dominant during winter over western Europe and in a few eastern countries due to the high NO 2 mixing ratios. During summer NO 3 is dominant only in regions with elevated NH 3 emissions. For the rest of the domain SO 4 is dominant. Low OC concentrations are simulated mainly due to the uncertain representation of SOA formation.