Modelling and assimilation of lidar signals over Greater Paris during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign
In this study, we investigate the ability of the chemistry transport model (CTM) Polair3D of the air quality modelling platform Polyphemus to simulate lidar backscattered profiles from model aerosol concentration outputs. This investigation is an important preprocessing stage of data assimilation (validation of the observation operator). To do so, simulated lidar signals are compared to hourly lidar observations performed during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment in July 2009, when a ground-based mobile lidar was deployed around Paris on-board a van. The comparison is performed for six different measurement days, 1, 4, 16, 21, 26 and 29 July 2009, corresponding to different levels of pollution and different atmospheric conditions. Overall, Polyphemus well reproduces the vertical distribution of lidar signals and their temporal variability, especially for 1, 16, 26 and 29 July 2009. Discrepancies on 4 and 21 July 2009 are due to high-altitude aerosol layers, which are not well modelled. In the second part of this study, two new algorithms for assimilating lidar observations based on the optimal interpolation method are presented. One algorithm analyses PM 10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm) concentrations. Another analyses PM 2.5 (particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm) and PM 2.5–10 (particulate matter with a diameter higher than 2.5 μm and lower than 10 μm) concentrations separately. The aerosol simulations without and with lidar data assimilation (DA) are evaluated using the Airparif (a regional operational network in charge of air quality survey around the Paris area) database to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of assimilating lidar profiles for aerosol forecasts. The evaluation shows that lidar DA is more efficient at correcting PM 10 than PM 2.5, probably because PM 2.5 is better modelled than PM 10. Furthermore, the algorithm which analyses both PM 2.5and PM 2.5–10 provides the best scores for PM 10. The averaged root-mean-square error (RMSE) of PM 10 is 11.63 μg m −3 with DA (PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10), compared to 13.69 μg m −3 with DA (PM 10) and 17.74 μg m −3 without DA on 1 July 2009. The averaged RMSE of PM 10 is 4.73 μg m −3 with DA (PM 2.5 and PM 2.5–10), against 6.08 μg m −3 with DA (PM 10) and 6.67 μg m −3 without DA on 26 July 2009.