Temperature influence on the natural aerosol budget over boreal forests
We investigated the natural aerosol evolution of biogenic monoterpene emissions over the northern boreal forest area as a function of temperature using long-term field measurements of aerosol size distributions and back trajectories at two SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations) stations, SMEAR I and SMEAR II, in Finland. Similar to earlier studies, we found that new particles were formed via nucleation when originally clean air from the ocean entered the land, after which these particles continuously grew to larger sizes during the air mass transport. Both the travelling hour over land and temperature influenced the evolution of the particle number size distribution and aerosol mass yield from biogenic emissions. Average concentrations of nucleation mode particles were higher at lower temperatures, whereas the opposite was true for accumulation mode particles. Thus, more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) may be formed at higher temperatures. The overall apparent aerosol yield, derived from the aerosol masses against accumulated monoterpene emissions, ranges from 13 to 37% with a minor, yet complicating, temperature dependence.