The BErkeley Atmospheric CO 2 Observation Network: initial evaluation
With the majority of the world population residing in urban areas, attempts to monitor and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily center on cities. However, existing carbon dioxide observation networks are ill-equipped to resolve the specific intra-city emission phenomena targeted by regulation. Here we describe the design and implementation of the BErkeley Atmospheric CO 2 Observation Network (BEACO 2N), a distributed CO 2 monitoring instrument that utilizes low-cost technology to achieve unprecedented spatial density throughout and around the city of Oakland, California. We characterize the network in terms of four performance parameters – cost, reliability, precision, and systematic uncertainty – and find the BEACO 2N approach to be sufficiently cost-effective and reliable while nonetheless providing high-quality atmospheric observations. First results from the initial installation successfully capture hourly, daily, and seasonal CO 2 signals relevant to urban environments on spatial scales that cannot be accurately represented by atmospheric transport models alone, demonstrating the utility of high-resolution surface networks in urban greenhouse gas monitoring efforts.