The Green Ocean: precipitation insights from the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment
This study summarizes the precipitation properties collected during the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign near Manaus in central Amazonia, Brazil. Precipitation breakdowns, summary radar rainfall relationships and self-consistency concepts from a coupled disdrometer and radar wind profiler measurements are presented. The properties of Amazon cumulus and associated stratiform precipitation are discussed, including segregations according to seasonal (wet or dry regime) variability, cloud echo-top height and possible aerosol influences on the apparent oceanic characteristics of the precipitation drop size distributions. Overall, we observe that the Amazon precipitation straddles behaviors found during previous U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program tropical deployments, with distributions favoring higher concentrations of smaller drops than ARM continental examples. Oceanic-type precipitation characteristics are predominantly observed during the Amazon wet seasons. An exploration of the controls on wet season precipitation properties reveals that wind direction, compared with other standard radiosonde thermodynamic parameters or aerosol count/regime classifications performed at the ARM site, provides a good indicator for those wet season Amazon events having an oceanic character for their precipitation drop size distributions.