Source sector and region contributions to black carbon and PM 2.5 in the Arctic

Sobhani, Negin; Kulkarni, Sarika; Carmichael, Gregory R.

The impacts of black carbon (BC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 inline-formulaµm (PMinline-formula2.5) emissions from different source sectors (e.g., transportation, power, industry, residential, and biomass burning) and geographic source regions (e.g., Europe, North America, China, Russia, central Asia, south Asia, and the Middle East) to Arctic BC and PMinline-formula2.5 concentrations are investigated through a series of annual sensitivity simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting – sulfur transport and deposition model (WRF-STEM) modeling framework. The simulations are validated using observations at two Arctic sites (Alert and Barrow Atmospheric Baseline Observatory), the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) surface sites over the US, and aircraft observations over the Arctic during spring and summer 2008. Emissions from power, industrial, and biomass burning sectors are found to be the main contributors to the Arctic PMinline-formula2.5 surface concentration, with contributions of inline-formula∼ 30 %, inline-formula∼ 25 %, and inline-formula∼ 20 %, respectively. In contrast, the residential and transportation sectors are identified as the major contributors to Arctic BC, with contributions of inline-formula∼ 38 % and inline-formula∼ 30 %. Anthropogenic emissions are the most dominant contributors (inline-formula∼ 88 %) to the BC surface concentration over the Arctic annually; however, the contribution from biomass burning is significant over the summer (up to inline-formula∼ 50 %). Among all geographical regions, Europe and China have the highest contributions to the BC surface concentrations, with contributions of inline-formula∼ 46 % and inline-formula∼ 25 %, respectively. Industrial and power emissions had the highest contributions to the Arctic sulfate (inline-formulaSO4) surface concentration, with annual contributions of inline-formula∼ 43 % and inline-formula∼ 41 %, respectively. Further sensitivity runs show that, among various economic sectors of all geographic regions, European and Chinese residential sectors contribute to inline-formula∼ 25 % and inline-formula∼ 14 % of the Arctic average surface BC concentration. Emissions from the Chinese industry sector and European power sector contribute inline-formula∼ 12 % and inline-formula∼ 18 % of the Arctic surface sulfate concentration. For Arctic PMinline-formula2.5, the anthropogenic emissions contribute > inline-formula∼ 75 % at the surface annually, with contributions of inline-formula∼ 25 % from Europe and inline-formula∼ 20 % from China; however, the contributions of biomass burning emissions are significant in particular during spring and summer. The contributions of each geographical region to the Arctic PMinline-formula2.5 and BC vary significantly with altitude. The simulations show that the BC from China is transported to the Arctic in the midtroposphere, while BC from European emission sources are transported near the surface under 5 km, especially during winter.

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Sobhani, Negin / Kulkarni, Sarika / Carmichael, Gregory R.: Source sector and region contributions to black carbon and PM2.5 in the Arctic. 2018. Copernicus Publications.

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