Assessment of simulated soil moisture from WRF Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM land surface schemes for landslide hazard application

Zhuo, Lu; Dai, Qiang; Han, Dawei; Chen, Ningsheng; Zhao, Binru

This study assesses the usability of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulated soil moisture for landslide monitoring in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy, during the 10-year period between 2006 and 2015. In particular, three advanced land surface model (LSM) schemes (i.e. Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM4) integrated with the WRF are used to provide detailed multi-layer soil moisture information. Through the temporal evaluation with the single-point in situ soil moisture observations, Noah-MP is the only scheme that is able to simulate the large soil drying phenomenon close to the observations during the dry season, and it also has the highest correlation coefficient and the lowest RMSE at most soil layers. It is also demonstrated that a single soil moisture sensor located in a plain area has a high correlation with a significant proportion of the study area (even in the mountainous region 141 km away, based on the WRF-simulated spatial soil moisture information). The evaluation of the WRF rainfall estimation shows there is no distinct difference among the three LSMs, and their performances are in line with a published study for the central USA. Each simulated soil moisture product from the three LSM schemes is then used to build a landslide prediction model, and within each model, 17 different exceedance probability levels from 1 % to 50 % are adopted to determine the optimal threshold scenario (in total there are 612 scenarios). Slope degree information is also used to separate the study region into different groups. The threshold evaluation performance is based on the landslide forecasting accuracy using 45 selected rainfall events between 2014 and 2015. Contingency tables, statistical indicators, and receiver operating characteristic analysis for different threshold scenarios are explored. The results have shown that, for landslide monitoring, Noah-MP at the surface soil layer with 30 % exceedance probability provides the best landslide monitoring performance, with its hit rate at 0.769 and its false alarm rate at 0.289.

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Zitierform:

Zhuo, Lu / Dai, Qiang / Han, Dawei / et al: Assessment of simulated soil moisture from WRF Noah, Noah-MP, and CLM land surface schemes for landslide hazard application. 2019. Copernicus Publications.

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