EVALUATION OF SPATIAL JUSTICE IN ACCESSIBILITY OF URBAN FACILITIES: A CASE STUDY OF ACCESSIBILITY OF PUBLIC PARKS IN DISTRICT # 11 OF TEHRAN, IRAN
The green spaces and urban parks play a critical role to improve the quality of life of citizens. In order to meet the principles of the justice-based city and spatial justice in the distribution of public services, it is necessary to evaluate the accessibility to parks in different locations and pay more attention to the places with a low level of accessibility. This study evaluates the spatial justice or inequalities in accessibility to urban parks in District # 11 of Tehran, Iran using a set of spatial indices and GIS tools. Indices used in this study are Covering, Minimum distance, Average distance, Proximity, Two-step floating catchment area and Gravity-based two-step floating catchment area. The results indicate that the level of accessibility to mini and neighborhood parks are almost similar and below the average level. The slight differences in the results are related to the differences in the assumptions and logics of methods. Moreover, the results show that the Coverage, 2SFCA and GB2SFCA (with inappropriate distance decay coefficient) methods face limitations when the accessibility for the community parks are calculated. For example, the Coverage method does not take into account the area of the park for measuring the accessibility level, in turn, this leads to inaccurate results. Overall, the findings show better accessibility to community parks than mini and neighborhood parks. This implies that the municipalities need to increase the number of local mini and neighborhood parks across the city.